The History Of Ekaterinburg

Ekaterinburg plant was founded as a fortress on the Iset River in 1723. The place for the factory chose V. Tatishchev. A factory under the direction of de Gennin. The city is named in honor of the Empress Catherine I. The production capacity of the Ekaterinburg factory included: 2 blast furnaces, 14 bloomery hammers, copper smelting plant, steel factory and anchor, machine guns and other drilling. The main products - iron, cast iron and copper. The full capacity of the plant has never been used. In 1737 it stopped blast furnaces. Since the late 1750s gradually decreased output by hammer, a steel and wire factories, and in 1769 copper smelting production stopped. In 1808 the Ekaterinburg plant closed.

In the XVIII century Ekaterinburg is developing as an administrative center of the mining industry in the Urals and Siberia. sectoral management system mountain plants of the Urals, Trans-Baikal and the Altai was independent of the local provincial authorities. Its central body located in Ekaterinburg. After 1781 part of the management of the mountain has been decentralized and is subject to the Exchequer of provincial boards.

In 1738 the city established stone-cutting workshop, which became in 1765 the Ekaterinburg lapidary factory. In 1761 it passed through Ekaterinburg Siberian post road.

In 1781 Ekaterinburg received the status of county town in the Perm province. In 1783 he was awarded the coat of arms, and in 1787 the first elections to the city (shestiglasnuyu) thought. The city government in XVIII - first half of the XIX century was dominated by Old Believer merchants.

In 1807, Ekaterinburg received the status of the mountain town, according to the provisions of the Draft Mining. Chief Mountain Mining District Ekaterinburg plants, along with the City Council, in charge of the urban economy and the rule of law. Artisans and peasants state-owned factories were exempted from local taxes. In 1831 it moved to Ekaterinburg residence of the Chief of the Main Ridge of the Ural mountain plants since the beginning of 1850 he actually single-handedly ruled the city.

Since 1726 in Ekaterinburg began manufacturing copper money first "plateau" (heavy square plates, where the denomination on a par with the price of the metal), and then with the 1735 all-Russian copper coin. Ekaterinburg Mint produced 80% of the copper coins in Russia, closed in June 1876. Constructed at the Ekaterinburg lapidary factory vases and bowls decorated Winter Palace. In founded in 1839 by mechanical factory produces water wheels and turbines, steam engines, machine tools, and so on. D. In 1874 the factory had lost orders and closed.

Basic classes merchants - salotopennoe, soap, leather production of meat and livestock, contracts for the transport of metals. The first oil mill founded in 1776, a tannery - 1782, soap-making began with the 1787 malting fishing since 1785. According to the 1804 fat drips out of 10 factories on 603 thousand rubles, 20 tanneries started doing skin for 30 thousand rubles, 9 brickworks produce up to 400 million bricks per year (3.6 thousand). Besides Ekaterinburg merchants owned several flour mills, soap, vegetable oil and malting plants. They settled down in the manor house next to the house. Old Believers settled in the so-called "Zaimka", in the southern part of the city.

Since the 1820s the richest of the Ekaterinburg merchants engaged in the development of mines alluvial gold in Western Siberia. In June 1826 Ekaterinburg merchant Yakima Ryazanov, one of the first in Russia to obtain permission to engage in gold mining. Among the merchants F. Kazantsev and Balandin at the turn of 1820-1830-ies he worked on a mine in the area p. Kundustuyul Tomsk province. In the first 5 years they have managed to get more than 116 pounds of gold. Closeup of Gold was Titus Zotov, who owned mines along the river. Sevaglikon Yenisei Province. Among the artisans prevailed stone cutting and jewelry. Ekaterinburg was the center of the Ural-Siberian Old Believers beglopopovskogo consent.

After the abolition of serfdom mining Urals experiencing a serious crisis. In 1863, the company has made the abolition of the Ekaterinburg mountain town status. In 1872 elected a new City Council on the principle of the census. Influence of mining authorities in Ekaterinburg gradually decreased, which has a positive effect on the urban economy.

In the same period there was a change of trade and industrial elite, began to develop transport, milling industry, services. In 1847, in Ekaterinburg opened the office of the State commercial bank lending to the mining industry. In 1864 established Public Bank, which is based capital amounted to funds from the city budget. In 1871, there was separation of the Volga-Kama Bank - the first in the city's commercial credit institution. In 1872 he founded the Siberian Commercial Bank, the beginning of the XX century became one of the largest in Russia.

In 1878 it built the first railroad in Ural Ekaterinburg, Perm, linking the Middle Urals plants to the provincial capital. Its construction was financed by private capital. In subsequent Ekaterinburg decades became a major railway junction: direction Ekaterinburg - Tyumen - Omsk (1885) and Ekaterinburg - Chelyabinsk (1896) were given access to the Siberian railway and the new railway line Ekaterinburg - Kungur - Perm (1909) - a direct path to St. Petersburg. Designed in the early XX century, the railroad Moscow direction Ekaterinburg - Kazan was completed only in 1920.

The growth of the population of Ekaterinburg and railway network contributed to the development of the milling industry. In 1884 she started working in the Urals first steam mill mayor Simanova II, became a leading company of the industry in the Ural-Siberian region. The second steam mill, AE Borchaninova, built in 1906 - 1908 years. Of great importance for the economic and social life of the city was held in Ekaterinburg in 1887, the Siberian-Ural Scientific and Industrial Exhibition. By 1904, in Ekaterinburg (without suburbs) there were 49 industrial enterprises with a turnover of 4.07 million rubles and more than 300 small handicraft establishments and shops. The largest of them: Mechanical Plant F. Yates, which produced steam machines, cloth Makarov brothers factory, brewery Zlokazova brothers.

In 1917, the transfer of power to the Bolsheviks in Ekaterinburg took place peacefully, in March 1918 changed the city council executive committee of the City Council. The city was located Ural Regional Council headed by A. Beloborodov - the highest organ of Soviet power in the Urals. Shortly after the start of full-scale civil war in June - early July 1918 anti-Bolshevik forces advancing on the city from the Chelyabinsk and Tyumen. On the night of 16 of July 17, was shot Nicholas II and his family. July 25th red left Ekaterinburg and July 28 in the city without a fight entered the Czechoslovak part S. Wojciechowski. In Ekaterinburg, was formed Provisional Regional Government of the Urals, has resumed operations City Council, came several members of All-Russian Constituent Assembly (Chernov and others). After the Omsk coup November 18, 1918 the executive power was transferred to the designated AV Kolchak Head Ural Territory SS Postnikov, Constituent Assembly members were arrested. Ekaterinburg at the time - one of the military command and control centers and the formation of the Siberian army was preparing to move here bet Kolchak. During offensive operations Ekaterinburg 2nd and 3rd Army 14 July 1919 red again occupied the city were restored Soviet authorities.

After the Civil War, significant changes in the production structure has not happened, focused on the restoration of destroyed by war and nationalized enterprises: the factory "Metallist" (formerly Yates), flax spinning factory named after VI Lenin (former Makarov), Upper Iset Metallurgical Plant, and others. By 1924 the volume of gross output reached 1913 4/5 level. During the time of the NEP was developed private handicrafts, mainly sewing, shoemaking, baking, metalworking (handicraftsmen 2178 to autumn 1925). In Sverdlovsk there was a bakery.

In 1923 Ekaterinburg became the capital of the Ural region, which included modern Kurgan, Chelyabinsk, Perm, Tyumen and Sverdlovsk regions. In 1924, he renamed Sverdlovsk. January 17, 1934 from the Ural region highlighted Sverdlovsk region.

During the first five enterprises in the city have been reconstructed, as well as the construction of new large plants (Urals Heavy Engineering Works (1933), Uralelektromashina (1934), Ural Turbomotor Works (1939) and others). It was during this period formed the industrial profile of Sverdlovsk. By the early 1940s, the town had 85 state-owned enterprises of the Union and national significance, 40% of the entire volume of production accounted for by engineering and metalworking. There were public transportation, the new power plant, sewage and water supply, high-rise buildings, schools and universities, the Drama Theatre and the Philharmonic, the circus and the zoo.

During the Great Patriotic War of 1941-45, there was another major transformation of the city's industry. In Sverdlovsk were evacuated more than 50 large enterprises, on the basis of which new or expanded old factories have been established: Ural Chemical Engineering Plant, the Ural instrument-making plant, the Ural Optical and Mechanical Plant and others. Sverdlovsk Industry produces various military equipment (tanks, self-propelled artillery, guns, and more). In general, during the war production increased six-fold.

In the postwar years in the city's economy continued to dominate engineering and metalworking, but there were companies focused on the consumer market: Oil Factory, knitting factory, large-panel construction. In 1970-1980, continued expansion of the military-industrial complex, which accounted for 20% of industrial production.

In 1991, the city returned to the historical name.